Friday, 27 February 2015

Types and Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is defined as the cancer or uncontrolled growth of cells in the cervix of women. Cervix is the lower part of the womb or uterus. It is not very common type of cancer but it can spread to danger in some cases. It starts its growth in the cells that surrounds the lining of the cervix.
There are number of pre cancerous stages in cervical cancers which are described by different names and nomenclature and one of them is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Let us discuss about the main types of Cervical Cancer and these are as follows:
     1. Squamous cell carcinoma                                    2. Adenocarcinoma

1. Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cervical cancer. More than 70 to 80% of cervical cancers belong to this category. This is the type of cervical cancer which starts developing from the lining or outer cells of cervix.

2. Adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma is the rarest type of cervical cancer and it develops in the mucus producing and ejecting glands. This is the type of cancer which is not so common earlier but the ratio is increasing in recent years. It is a cause of concern. Its treatment process is same as the squamous cell carcinoma.

Sometimes there are cases in which the patient experience both type of cervical cancer that is squamous cell carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma and this type of cancer is called as mixed carcinoma and in doctors term it is called as adenosquamous carcinoma.

It has been surveyed that only a few women develops cervical cancer. Pre cancerous stage may take number of years to develop but in some cases it may happen within an year time.

How Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer is done?

It is generally done by a special kind of Cervical or Womb cancer test known as the Pap Test. Symptoms like pain during intercourse and bleeding sometime also indicate some problem and it can be cervical cancer.

If you experience these symptoms and you visit the doctor then he/ she may refer you to have a biopsy in which a small tissue from the cervical area is taken out and it is tested. For a specified period of time the tissue is tested   and the growth of cell is observed and decision is made after this approach.
Doctor may also refer you to go for various imaging tests for diagnosis of cervical cancer like MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and CT Scan(Computed Tomography). These are some of the common methods by how Cervical Cancer can be diagnosed.

Note: Timely consideration of Symptoms of Cervical Cancer and diagnosis can stop the cancer from developing at the earliest stage.

Saturday, 21 December 2013

Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer is associated with the esophagus and it is uncommon cancer but a type of cancer which is not healed easily. There are so many causes behind this like alcohol, smoking, diet, pollutants and many more and there are certain symptoms of Esophageal Cancer which indicates the esophageal cancer.

Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer are as follows :-

Swallowing Difficulty
1. Difficulty in swallowing food :- This is the most common symptom of esophageal cancer. It may happen that when you eat food and swallow then there is some burning sensation in your throat and feeling of sticking food to the food pipe. This can happen due to the tumor that develops inside the esophagus.

2. Unnecessary weight loss :- If you are undergoing loss of weight without trying anything, then you should have to take care of yourself as this is also a common symptom of cancer.

Throat Pain
3. Blood while coughing :- Blood coughing up indicates the problem in throat and the problem must be diagnosed as this may be esophageal cancer.

4. Hoarseness :- If there is some irritation in your throat and there is hoarseness in your voice then you must visit the doctor as this is also the symptom.

5. Chest & throat Pain :- One of the other symptom of esophageal cancer is Chest and throat pain. If there is chest pain and throat pain or burning near the heart then it indicates esophageal cancer.


6. Fatigue :- Fatigue is common symptom of cancer and esophagus cancer too. Thus along with above symptoms fatigue without any reason should be taken in care.

Choking while eating

7. Chocking while eating :- If you are having trouble while swallowing your food and food just come back after swallowing then there may be chances that you have esophagus cancer.

 American Cancer Society
 Mayo Clinic
 Cancer Research UK

Risk Factors and Causes of Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer is one of the uncommon cancer but now it is growing from the past 30 years and affecting the lives of people. It is increasing due to change in the dietary habits, pollution and drinking and smoking habits.

There are so many risk factors and causes of esophageal cancer which are as follows :-

smoking & drinking
1. Smoking & drinking Alcohol :- Smoking & drinking Alcohol increase the risk of esophageal cancer. When you smoke cigarette or pipe, then some of the smoke particles are inhaled in through esophagus to the lungs and thus leads to esophageal cancer.

2.  Diet :- The persons having diet rich in red meat are at higher risk of esophageal cancer. The food rich in spices and hot drinks also increase the risk of cancer. Eastern countries uses much spices and thus are at high risk of cancer. Diet rich in fruits and vegetables is an ideal one and it can reduce the risk of esophageal cancer as these contains certain vitamins and minerals and they are good antioxidants which can fight the free radicals which are responsible for cancer formation.

Barret's Esophagus
3. Barret's esophagus :- This is the condition in which the the cells lining the esophagus become abnormal due to acid reflux in which the acid present in the stomach is shifted back towards the esophagus and led to irritation in the esophagus and abnormality in the esophagus cells.


4. Obesity :- This is also a main cause and a risk factor which can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Obese people are more vulnerable to esophageal cancer as they have more chances to have Barret's esophagus.

Pollutants & Chemicals
5. Pollutants and certain chemicals :- If you are exposed to certain chemicals and pollutants for a long span of time then you are at a high risk of esophageal cancer and particularly if you inhale these chemicals which include soot, silica dust, metal dust and vehicle exhaust fumes and many other pollutants.

Age Factor & Tooth loss

6. Age & Tooth loss:- Age is also a factor which can put you on risk of esophageal cancer. There is a rare chance of having this cancer in early ages but the risk increases after the age of 45. It has been observed that people who have lost their tooth due to any deficiency of vitamins or minerals or other factors are at more risk of esophageal cancer because they suffer from chewing problems and the large pieces of food irritates the esophagus.

Cancer Research UK
NHS Choices

Thursday, 19 December 2013

Esophageal Cancer and types of Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal Cancer is that type of cancer which is associated to the esophagus. This type of cancer generally occurs through the lining tissues of esophagus. Esophagus is also known as food pipe which carries the food from throat to the stomach. This is an uncommon cancer. It is most common in the developing nations like Asia and African countries. Esophagus cancer can develop anywhere in the nearby parts of the esophagus. I can happen due to excessive smoking and drinking and also due to abnormal eating habits and the back action of the acid present in the stomach. There are two types of esophageal cancer one in the upper part and second in the lower part that are Squamous cell carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of esophagus respectively.

There are two types of Esophageal cancer that are as follows :-

Types of Esophageal Cancer

1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of esophagus :- This type of esophagus cancer is formed in the upper part of the esophagus and it is common in the Asian and African countries. This type of cancer is caused due to the drinking and smoking at high rates.

2. Adenocarcinoma of esophagus :- This type of esophagus cancer is formed in the lower parts of the esophagus near the stomach. This is associated with the backward flow of the acid present in the stomach. This leads to obesity and increase in the belly.

NHS Choices
National Cancer Institute

Thursday, 5 December 2013

What happens when you quit SMOKING ???

SMOKING cigarette is one of the major cause of many types of tumors and cancers and it can harm us in several other ways like causing mouth cancer, lung cancer, larynx cancer, esophageal cancer, throat cancer, pancreatic cancer cervical cancer and many more. The rate of deaths due to smoking cigarettes is on a rise and numbers are in millions every year. Now if a person quit smoking and lead a normal life, then there should be a drastic change in person's life and the change is shown a\in this article within a span of 15 years after quitting smoking. The effect on body after quitting smoking in different are described as
Effect of quitting smoking
1. After 20 minutes :- When you quit smoking, right after 20 minutes the heart beat and the blood pressure are dropped again to the normal conditions and you feel somewhat relaxed and cool.

2. After 12 hours :- there is a major change after 12 hours in the body and the toxic blood due to the presence of  Carbon Monoxide becomes nontoxic as the level of carbon monoxide drops to normal.

3. After 2 weeks :- the lungs comes to such a position that they start working normally and the functioning is improved as the circulation of air by the lungs improve.

4. After a month :- the ill effects of smoking like the shortening of breath and other ailments like cough becomes less vulnerable. The functioning of lungs improve and the side line hairs of the lungs start working properly and they clean the lungs that were before causing infection to the lungs.

5. After 1 year :- Smokers are at a high risk of heart diseases. After 1 year of quitting cigarette the risk of heart disease is reduced by 50%.

6. After 5 years :- Smokers are at a high risk of various cancers like esophageal cancer, mouth cancer, bladder cancer and cervical cancer but after 5 years of quitting smoking the risk rate is reduced by 50%.

7. After 10 years :- The death rate of a smoker is more than that of a non smoker due to various ailments that they acquire by smoking. After 10 years of quitting of smoking the risk of death by the deadly pancreatic cancer and larynx cancer is reduced by 50%.

8. After 15 years :- After this term the risk of heart disease to the quitter becomes equal to a non smoker.

This was the effect on body when you QUIT SMOKING and I personally recommend you to QUIT SMOKING if you are smoking right now because the pleasure it gave you for few minutes takes away everything from you after sometime. So to QUIT SMOKING is the best way out to live a dignified and healthy life.

Saturday, 9 November 2013

Risk Factors and Causes of Bone Cancer

BONE CANCER is one of the uncommon cancer of all the other cancers and it generally develops in the children of age under 20. It can also happen to people of older age group. There are so many factor which can led to Bone Cancer or we can say that factors that can increase the risk of Bone Cancer.

Some of the risk factors and causes of Bone Cancer are as follows:-

1 Age :- As we have generally seen that Cancer is that kind of disease which cling in older ages but in case of Bone Cancer it tend to develop in teenage and young adults. It has connection with the development of bones during puberty. Osteosarcoma and Ewing's Sarcoma is developed in people of age group from 10-20 years of age. Now people of age groups of 40 and above are prone to chondrosarcoma and spindle cell sarcoma.

2. Radiotherapy and earlier Cancer treatments :- It has been studied that people who have undergone cancer treatment earlier in their lifetime are at higher risk of bone cancer. Radiotherapy in early ages causes mutation in bone cells which increases the risk of bone cancer. It has been seen that people who have undergone chemotherapy are 8 times more at risk of osteosarcoma.

3. Knocks and Injuries :- It is a myth that bone injuries and fractures can lead to bone cancer. It may happen that the bone weaken by the early tumor in bone is highlighted due to injury. During any bone injury doctors try to locate early tumors in bones if any.

4. Ethnicity :- It has been studied in America for over a period of 30 years about Ewing's Sarcoma that white Americans are at high risk of about nine times more than the black Americans.

5. Genetic factors :- Li-Fraumeni is a syndrome which is being followed in heredity. It is caused due to faulty genes adopted by the parents. If a person suffers from this syndrome then it will be likely at more risk of developing multiple cancers including bone cancer. The person is also at risk of developing a rare eye cancer named as retinoblastoma. Past history of cancer in family can be a factor also. If mother has developed breast cancer before the age of 45 then her children are at 5 times more risk of osteosarcoma.

6. Having hernia or other bone diseases :- Children having umbilical hernia which is caused during the development of embryo can increase the risk of bone cancer by 3 times and if you have a bone disease named Paget's disease then you are at high risk of Osteosarcoma.

7. Occupation of parents :- It has been observed that the parents who work in fields or especially the women who work in fields during their pregnancy come in contact with the fertilizers and pesticides and it can increase the risk of bone cancer in their child.

Cancer Research UK

Friday, 25 October 2013

BONE CANCER and types of Bone Cancer

BONE CANCER is one of the uncommon cancer of all other types of cancers. Bone cancer generally affects the normal tissue of the bones and affects the working of bones. Bone cancer can be primary or secondary. Primary bone cancer begins within the bone whereas secondary bone cancer begins in other parts of the body and spread to nearby bones and affects them. Bone cancer may be malignant(fatal) or non-malignant. This mainly occurs in the long bones of the body particularly in arm bones and leg bones. The most common symptom of bone cancer if pain in joints.

There are various types of bone cancers that are as follows :-

1. Osteosarcoma :- Osteosarcoma is is the most common bone cancer that mainly affects the age group of 5 to 20 years. It arises from a bone tissue named osteoid. It mainly occurs in long bones such as thigh bone and arm bone. It is the third most common cancer that develops in children after  brain tumors and leukemia.

2. Chondrosarcoma :- This type of bone cancer mainly develops in adults of age group of 40 to 50 years. It mainly occurs in the cartilage tissue of bones. These mainly occurs in upper arms of body, shoulder, upper leg and between the hip bones known as pelvis.

3. Ewing sarcoma :- This type of bone cancer mainly occur in main bone area and also it can occur in the soft parts and tissues of body such as fibrous, muscle, fat tissues, blood vessels and other supporting tissues. This occurs in the young age group of 10 to 20 years of age. It mainly develops in backbone and pelvis.

4. Spindle cell sarcoma :- This type of bone cancer is likely to osteosarcoma which occurs in adult age group of age more that 40 years of age. It occurs in thigh bones and arm bones similar to osteosarcoma.

National Cancer Institute
NHS Choices
US Mediline Plus