Sunday, 13 October 2013


BLOOD CANCER as the name suggest is associated with the blood forming tissues. It is an uncommon type of cancer. In blood cancer white blood cells rapidly start growing which doesn't allow the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. It affects the functioning and formation of blood. Most of the blood cancers originates from the blood formation tissue that is bone marrow. It also affects the lymphatic system and formation of plasma cells. There are three major types of blood cancer that are Leukemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma and these are discussed as follows :-

1. Leukemia :- It is a type of blood cancer which originates from bone marrow. In this type of blood cancer White blood cells or W.B.C.s lost control over their formation and starts growing rapidly and obstructs the formation of Red blood cells or known as R.B.C.s and platelets which are helpful in fighting the infections. Leukemia is of two types that are acute and chronic and involves two types of cells that are lymphoid and granulocyte cells or myelocyte cells. Due to this reason leukemia is categorized into four major types that are as :-
(i)   Acute Lymphocytic leukemia or ALL which is common in children and in adults too.
(ii)  Chronic Lymphocytic leukemia or CLL which affects people of older age groups more than 55 of age.
(iii) Acute myelogenous leukemia or AML which affects mostly adults.
(iv) Chronic myelogenous leukemia or CML that also target adults.

2. Lymphoma :- In this type of blood cancer as the name suggests, it affects the lymphatic system of the body which is responsible for removing excess fluids and generates the immune cells. Lymphocytes or immune cells are generally white blood cells that protect us from infections. Lymphocytes which shows abnormal action becomes lymphoma cells and starts dividing abnormally and collects in lymph nodes and other parts of body. Later on they start retarding our immune system. 
There are two types of lymphocytes that are B cells and T cells. B & T cells both collectively fights with infections of body. B cells act as an indicator which stick to the pathogen to be destroyed and T cells actually attack and destroy the pathogen. Lymphoma occurs when these B and T cells transforms and began growing rapidly. These may collect in lymph nodes and forms lump and doesn't let the oxygen to reach other body parts. It may also spread to other parts and can metastatize and spreading of tumor to other parts of body other that lymph nodes is referred to as extra nodal disease.

3. Myeloma :- It is another type of blood cancer which affects the plasma cells of blood which are generally white blood cells that are responsible for producing antibodies that fights infections and certain diseases. Myeloma weakens the body as the immune system gets retarded due inability to fight infections. In multiple myeloma a group of  plasma cells shows abnormal action and become cancerous and they multiplies raising the number of abnormal plasma cells and affects bones, immune system, kidneys and red blood cell count.

American Society of hematology
Leukemia and Lymphoma research
Leukemia & Lymphoma society

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